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Haas 2C

The orbital rocket Haas 2C, named after Conrad Haas (1509-1579), Austrian-Romanian medieval rocket pioneer, is able to launch 400 kg of payload to low earth orbit. The rocket has two stages that are both fueled with liquid oxygen and kerosene.

 
 

Diameter
4 ft
1.2 m
Length
60 ft
18 m
Lift-off weight
35,000 lb
16,000 kg
Lift-off thrust
44,000 lbf
20,000 kgf
Payload to LEO
880 lb
400 kg

 

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First stage Executor rocket engine

The first stage is powered by the Executor, an open cycle gas generator rocket engine, that uses liquid oxygen and kerosene and has a vacuum thrust of 52,000 lbf (24,000 kgf). This engine aims to keep low construction costs, without sacrificing the high performance. In order to reach the objectives, the team decided to use composite materials and aluminum alloys on a large scale. The composite materials offer low construction costs and lower the component weight. Composite materials were used in the construction of the combustion chamber and the nozzle, gas generator and some elements in the turbo-pumps.

 
 

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The combustion chamber and the nozzle are built from two layers. The internal layer is made of silica fiber and phenolic resin, and the external one is made of carbon fiber and epoxy resin. The phenolic resin reinforced with silica fiber pyrolyzes endothermally in the combustion chamber walls, releasing gases like oxygen and hydrogen, leaving a local carbon matrix. The gases spread through the carbon matrix and reach the internal surface of the wall where they meet the hot combustion gases and act as a cooling agent. Furthermore, the engine is equipped with a cooling system that injects on the internal wall 10 percent of the total kerosene mass.

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The gas generator has the same cooling principle and also the intake, while the intake and exhaust turbine volutes are constructed from the same composite materials mentioned above. Using these light materials gives the Executor engine a thrust/mass ratio of 110. The team predicts that they will improve this ratio as the tests proceed, a safety margin being implemented in the prototype phase.

The pump volutes are made of 6062 type aluminum alloy. The pump rotors are made through lathing and milling using 304 type steel. The supersonic turbine is made of refractory steel, both the core and the blades. The turbine rotation speed is 20,000 rpm and has a 1.5 MW power. The intake gas temperature is 1150 degrees Fahrenheit (620 deg. Celsius). The main engine valves are made of 6060 type aluminum and are pneumatically powered, without adjustment. The gas generator valves are ball typed, pneumatically powered and can be adjusted. The engine injector and the liquid oxygen intake pipes are made of 304 L type steel and the kerosene intake pipe is made of composite materials. The engine has the possibility to direct the thrust by 5 degrees on two axes. The articulated system is made of composite materials and high-grade steel alloy. The engine is rotated using two hydraulic pistons that use kerosene from the pump exhaust system.

 

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Executor rocket engine, technical data and performances
 

Diameter
2.3 ft
0.7 m
Length
7.2 ft
2.2 m
Fuel
LOX + kerosene
LOX + kerosene
Flow rate
187 lb/sec
85 kg/sec
Weight
484 lb
220 kg
Sea level thrust
44,000 lbf
20,000 kgf
Vacuum thrust
53,000 lbf
24,000 kgf
Impulse (vacuum)
312 sec
312 sec
Thrust weight ratio
110
110

 

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Second stage Venator rocket engine

The second stage is powered by the Venator, pressure fed rocket engine, that has a vacuum thrust of 5,500 lbf (2,500 kgf).

The Venator rocket engine has no vanes on the main pipes. It uses instead burst disks, between the tanks and the engine. The second stage is pressurized to 2 bars at lift-off and after the first stage burn-out, the second stage will be pressurized at 16 bars. At that pressure the disks will burst and the fuel will flow through the engine. Using burst disks, the mass of the stage will decrease while the reliability will increase.

The engine injector and the liquid oxygen intake pipes are made of 304 L type steel and the kerosene intake pipe is made of composite materials. The whole second stage is spin-stabilized at 60 rpm, immediately after staging. The spin will be created using four helium RCS.


 

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Venator rocket engine, technical data and performances
 

Max. diameter
2.64 ft
0.8 m
Length
4.62 ft
1.4 m
Weight
145 lb
66 kg
Fuel
LOX + kerosene
LOX + kerosene
Flow rate
17.8 lb/sec
8.1 kg/sec
Chamber pressure
145 psi
10 bars
Vacuum thrust
5,500 lb
2,500 kgf
Impulse (vacuum)
317 sec
317 sec

 

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Mission 8

At the beginning of 2012, ARCA launched Mission 8, a series of five flights, at 110,000 ft. The main objective of Mission 8 was to test propulsion and avionics equipment for the Haas 2C launcher.

 

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